Another Quaker Cap: Philly 87.35.826

First draft; pics ok

This is very similar to many other Quaker caps I saw in my travels, especially a group from Chester County Historical Society, but also individual examples in other places.  It’s the only squared-lappet one museums date 1750-1800, though, and I want to talk about that while I suggest it’s more probably 19th C.  This one is housed at the Phildelphia History Museum. Its item number is #87.35.826. It does not have an online catalog record.


The Original

Typical of turn-of-the-century Quaker caps, this is a lappet of a superfine cloth, gauzy and see-through.  But while its shape is standard, its construction has some unique features.

A gauzy lappet made with interesting construction.
Philly 87.35.826 is dated 1750-1800, but is more likely 1800-, when compared to similar examples elsewhere.

The headpiece and ruffle are all one piece.  So is the caul and the bavolet, or ruffle around the nape.  Then there is a third piece that’s really just the lappets pieced onto the rest of the cap.  The shaping is created by strings in self-fabric channels in all three pieces. I’ve made a color-coded quick drawing to help you see what I’m talking about.

The ruffles are created from strings through self-fabric channels in the caul and headpiece.
A color-coded version of Phill 87.35.826, to show construction. Probably 19th C.


The strings are all running in self-fabric channels just large enough to hold the string.  I think there are two strings, but there might be three.  One starts at the join where the lappet, headpiece, and caul all cone together, and goes back on each side, coming out to a visible bow at the center back, 1″ from the bottom edge.  The other starts from the end of one lappet, wraps and over the CF, and comes out the other lappet, to be tied under the chin.  It runs up the middle of the lappet, so it makes a pretty ruching when pulled.

The caul is whip gathered, then sewn on to the (rolled edged) headpiece  with big loose stitches, flattening the effect. All the outside edges are whipped to finish.

The characteristic that most gives away this cap’s 19th C date is the square end of the lappets.  That seems to be one detail that curators I talked to agreed was a dividing point.  In other examples, the gather up the middle of the lappet is created by finishing the edges of 2 rectangles, and leaving gaps in the join where the string is threaded.  Here’s an example of that technique in another Philly cap, #1000.179.

The gather is accomplished by leaving gaps in the vertical seam down the middle of the lappet, and weaving the stings in and out.
Philly 1000.179 (not the same cap) shows a variation on the gather technique in a Quaker lappet, probably 19th C.

Questions that remain

I’m making a judgement call on the idea that there are only two gather strings. The one that goes up and down the front, creating the faux ruffle, might be two different strings.  This cap was too fragile to manipulate much, but as it sits there is a slight pucker in the front string.  Also, other Quaker caps with similar construction have sometimes a separate string, creating this false-ruffle effect.  Sometimes it is just a silky thread, without even a channel, and the bow is at the CF.  Kannik’s Korner pattern #6602 (view B) reproduces a cap like that.

Also, notice that the way the lappet is sewn on, it has to fold like a piece of origami under the chin.  You are sewing a straight piece into a corner.  Who came up with that?  It’s very awkward.


Peggy's cap is very similar to this one, but note her lappets are rounded.
Margaret “Peggy” Custis Wilson (Mrs. John Custis Wilson) 1791 Artist: Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) Colonial Williamsburg

I was so excited when I discovered this portrait at Williamsburg!  Look! her cap looks like this one!

Two things are important here:  This is one of only 2 portraits I’ve seen of a cap with the lappets loose.  Which is great to know — they did it too, and all ya’ll that complain about ties under your chin can use these rare exceptions to justify your attire.

Here’s the only other example I can find of a loose lappet. It is British, and portrays lovers, so I think the the idea isn’t that she would go out and about like this.

A man hovers over a women in a chair feeding her cat. Her cap and her neckerchief are loose.
Francis Wheatley, The Rustic Lover Francis Wheatley (1747 – 1801) – Artist (British) Shows a woman with her lappets dangling, but I think it is meant to convey her availabilty.

The other great thing about the Peale portrait is that this has a solid date, 1791, which makes us feel very confident that these types of caps were being worn by wealthy people in our time period.  But note the ends of her lappets are rounded.

The Reproduction

I haven’t reproduced this one yet.

My Notes

Click here for notes and pattern: Philly 87.35.826


Thank Yous and Permissions

This person gave me permission to use images (mine or theirs) and discuss this artifact here. They also helped me in this way.

Photos by the author.

Other Related Scholarship

I am not aware of any other scholarship on this cap.








Museums I Visited

Between 2013 and 2017, I visited a dozen museums and saw more than 100 caps.  Here is a list of the museums*, and the artifacts I saw at each one.

Image of fine gathered linen from Kent State Museum.

Each is listed with its museum dates. Those deemed eighteenth-century for this project are starred.

Many more leads could not be followed up because of time constraints.  More caps with eighteenth-century dates exist than were supposed, and, one assumes, more will be discovered.

Museum of Fine Arts Boston

#49.366 18th C. * (child)

#49.370 (infant)

#51.238 (infant)

#45.787 (infant)

#99.848 1820’s

Daughters of the American Revolution Museum, Washington DC

#200.10.2 18th C. *

#1203 1777*

#78.65.9 1805

#82.138.9 1820

#2005.13 n.d.

#2464.2  1800

#1817 n.d.

#98.54.5 n.d.

#4510.2 n.d.

Kent State University Museum, Kent, Ohio

#1995.017.0467 1860

#1995.017.0399 1860

#1983.001.1493 1840

#1995.017.0455 1860

#1990.086.0002 1840

New Canaan Historical Society, CT

#CE 237 n.d.

#CE 419 19th C. *

#E169 19th C

#HS 19th C

#269B 18th C (Dutch)

#CE 173 18th C

#CE 164 18th C

Smithsonian National Museum of American History, Washington, DC

(Which is not the same thing as the Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum, in NYC. Their textiles section was under construction at the time of this study, so I didn’t get to see their artifacts.)

#274535.2 late 18th C

#220965.20 late 18th– early 19th C

#6608 1780-1800*

#1971.1162.28 1800-1899

#254326.2 late 18th –19th C

#372.213 n.d.

#312686 n.d.

#6608-A 1775-99 *

#6700-B 1790-1810 *

#6609-B 1790-1810

#6608-B 1795-1815*

#6608-D 1775-1799*

#6608-C 1775-1799*

Charleston Museum, Charleston, SC

#HT1836 1820-1830

#HT1693 1820-30

#HT2908 (1722-1837)

#1855 late 18th C*

#2008.029.002 n.d.

#HT 4196 (a, b, & c.) n.d.

#2008.029.003 n.d.

#2006.041.003 Early 19th C

#HT6815 n.d.

#HT6392 1820

#HT 1641 n.d.

#HT1650 n.d.

#HT1644 n.d.

#HT1867 Late 18th C

#HT1868 n.d.

#HT5884 n.d.

#HT 1839 1790

# HT1876 n.d.

#HT 1872 n.d.

#HT1694 1850

#HT 1710 1850

#HT6309 1857

#HT1881 early 19th C

Genesee Country Village and Museum (Susan Green Costume Collection in the John L Wehle Gallery)

#88.195 1825

#2001.026 1800-1850

#87.213 1770-1800*

#91.70 1750*

#2004.102 1800-1850

#97.024 1815

#98.036 1750* (on display)

Philadelphia History Museum at the Atwater Kent

Note: closed until further notice!

#87.35.825 1750-1800*

#87.35.138 1800-1860

#87.35.827 1750-1800*

#87.35.826 1750-1800*

#1973.37 n.d.*

#1000.179 n.d.

#1000.176 n.d.

#87.35.994 1820

Chester County Historical Society, West Chester, PA

#1989.1891 n.d.(?)

#1989.1892 1800-1840

#1989.1890 n.d.(?)

#1989.1912 1800-1840

#1989.1903 n.d.

#1989.1882 1800-1840

#1989.1883 1800-1840

#1989.1886 1800-1840

#1989.1897 1800-1840

#1989.1902 1800-1840

#1989.1962 n.d.

#1989.1893 1800-1840

#1989.1894 1800-1840

#1989.1914 1800-1840

#1989.1954 (1953?) 1800-1840 (?)

#1989.1959 n.d.

#1994.3270 1790-1810*

#1989.1995 1790-1810*

#1989.28.11 n.d.

1990.21.3 n.d.

Winterthur Museum, Garden, and Gallery, Delaware

#1955.0003.013 1760* (child)

#1969.4675 1750-1800*

#1982.0064 1774-1826*

Henry Whitfiled State Museum, Guilford, CT

#942020 18th C or 1827

#955003D n.d.

Musee McCord Museum, Montreal, Quebec

M987.32.1 1785

M987.32.2 1785

M965.136.86 early 19th C

M980.4.26 late 17th-early 18th*

*The Costume Institute at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, NYC, the Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum, NYC., and  Historic New England, (fromerly Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities (SPNEA)), Haverhill, MASS have caps with  eighteenth-century dates, but these 3 museums were undergoing renovations during the period of this study.   ?????